Tiel in the 10th century had taken over 0. Delta for the trade with England Ellmers , It is well possible that the remains of seagoing vessels of One may wonder why such inefficient vessel type was the Utrecht type will be found there in the future. After the midth century and other trade goods Vogel , ; van Vliet we no longer have remains of large craft. This runs I believe that the answer lies in the logboat counter to our understanding that waterborne trade in bottom of the Utrecht-type vessel.
The weakest parts the Rhine delta increased rapidly in the course of the of a wooden hull are its joints, so Utrecht-type craft 11th century e. Vogel , ; van Vliet A log- the Middle Meuse. The stretch of the Rhine between boat base such as that of the Utrecht I ship needed Coblenz and Mainz as well as the Meuse at Dinant very large oak trees with trunks at least To judge by the spi- their strong currents and shallow rocks.
In the early 12th cen- sels for crossing over to England or for making trips tury, also the smaller logboat from the Lange Lauwer- to the Middle Rhine to haul building stones, wood, straat had a spiraling grain. Vogel , cargo vessels kept growing. In terms of propulsion, most inland Utrecht-type ships The rounded bottoms of Utrecht-type ships also made must have been towed, poled, or oared. The rounded , Many river harbors such as those of Tiel and hull of the Utrecht type must have been prone to drift Utrecht had such sloping banks as well.
Seagoing ships may have been provided with a skeg or other device to keep better course, but Archaeological research has shown that by the 10th and no evidence has survived. Remains of wharf fronts have been found at boat has given us clues. Lumps of peat found in the boat Tiel and Deventer 10th century , Schleswig, Bergen, must be the remains of a past cargo, whereas the high Utrecht, and London 11th century , and Stavoren 12th density of wheat and barley pollen among the remains century.
Given this development, it is conceivable indicates that at some time it also carried grain. Only that the rubbing wales found on all larger sufficiently one vessel — the Utrecht I ship — has been analyzed preserved Utrecht-type ships were intended to protect in terms of its cargo capacity, and the result indicates the hull from damage when mooring against a wharf. The next hull type to be discussed also car bumper: they received most of the impact of a col- descended from the expanded logboat, but belongs to lision and could be easily replaced when damaged.
If a newly proposed theory is correct, long to the same broad boatbuilding tradition as barges both traditions would have co-existed on the southern and cogs even though they constitute a functionally shores of the North Sea during the Middle Ages. They are rela- reused in the wooden wharf frontage against which the tively rare and highly fragmentary, but as they are quite Utrecht barge sank some time later in the 11th century widespread both geographically and chronologically, de Groot , It has not been provenanced. It dates to may have been built locally. Finds include hull parts, the early 12th century, and was made of wood from the one boat grave, and a few hundred rivets.
The list of hull parts is quite substantial Tab. Three A century later, two fragments of a clinker-built hull hull fragments dating to the 9th century have been found were used in the foundations of a monastery at Dordrecht in Dorestad. They had been made of local wood from in the early 13th century; their wood may be of Baltic the Dutch or German North Sea coast Vlierman a, origin Vliermana, , app.
A century or so later, five fragments of Nordic clinker-built cargo ship from Rotterdam Rotterdam 1 ; ships were reused in the lining of graves at Vlaardin- its wood has a strong correlation with tree-ring patterns gen, near Rotterdam, in the 10th and 11th centuries. Two from the Saxon coast van Holk , , app. Five timbers of Nordic-type ship found in Antwerp. Top: Plank with oar holes pres. Vlierman a, Meuse delta, cent. Remains of Nordic type vessels found in the Netherlands and Belgium, arranged in chronological order. These results needs more study. Aalders , A particularly intriguing find is Some objections can be raised, however, which make the 7th-century boat-shaped grave with rivets excavated it difficult to accept for now the hypothesis of a local at Solleveld, near Den Haag.
Such grave is unique in Nordic boatbuilding tradition along the southern North the Netherlands and resembles Anglo-Saxon and Scan- Sea coast. A more serious objection is, in my needed to build a single large Scandinavian clinker ship, opinion, that the late 9th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle their chronological and geographic spread is so great that clearly differentiates between the shape of Frisian and they must come from many different ships. For this reason Danish ships when it relates how King Alfred used nei- Reinders and Aalders no longer believe these finds to be ther design for his own ships, but came up with his own the remnants of boats built by Scandinavian shipwrights.
This passage implies They propose instead that there was a local tradition of that the hulls of Frisian and Danish seagoing ships were clinker-built ships along the Dutch coast, which may have different in shape and the designs were geographically been introduced by immigrants from southern Scandina- distinct.
It is difficult to reconcile this historical evi- via in the late 4th or early 5th century. This implies that dence with the proposed existence of a Nordic clinker Frisian seafarers would have used, or at least been famil- tradition along the Frisian coast, unless one accepts the iar with, clinker-built ships.
So do Carolingian of clinker-built ships that extended all along the North coins of the 9th century display ships with rounded hulls Sea coast from Scandinavia to the Low Countries and resembling the Utrecht-type vessels, and their Scan- England. The same three types of seagoing ships are found rigid, sturdy hulls with thick, heavy frames and planking, in other medieval representations as well. Simple and impossible, planking curvatures attached in improbable expanded logboats were produced as well to serve as ways to the hull extremities.
I have argued elsewhere that if one accepts some artistic Whether or not this local Nordic boatbuilding tradition license on the part of those fantastic images, one finds existed, the present corpus of ca. Also their chrono- ably limited. In terms of seagoing vessels, we only have logical range and geographic origin overlap, as the hulk remains of the Nordic-type ship, Utrecht-type craft, in the written sources is attested from the late 10th cen- and the cog presumably preceded by the proto-cog.
Later on, presumably during the century, when the hulk hybridized with the cog. Bottom planks are laid flush and are not number of ship types both in the historical and the connected, whereas the side strakes overlap and are archaeological record of the southern North Sea region fastened to each other with treenails Meinerswijk 2 Tab.
From the 13th century, we have two wrecks or double-clenched iron nails Rotterdam 2. The hull that can be identified as the Dutch boat type punter, is reinforced with sets of one flat and two knee-shaped even though they show some differences with the pre- floor timbers. In one boat Meinerswijk 2 the knee- sent-day punter, an inland vessel typical for the Dutch shaped timbers are laid with their uprights alternating province of Overijssel Vlierman a, ; cf.
Caulking is done with Berk One medieval punter wreck was found moss and sintels Meinerswijk 2 or small wooden at Meinerswijk boat 2 and is dated to ca. AD prikjes Rotterdam 2. The punter Meinerswijk 2 has a Reinders , The other has been found at small longitudinal mast step. Rotterdam and is dated to ca. AD Rotter- dam 2: Fig. With these characteristics, punters clearly belong to the same boatbuilding tradition as barges, Utrecht-type Medieval punters are low, open vessels with a flat bot- vessels, and cogs. In fact, they are not unlike small, tom rising gradually to the bow and stern, and slant- slender cogs.
The wood of the Rotterdam 2 wreck has ing sides. The hull is lanceolate in plan view, and its been provenanced to the German North Sea coast. This pointed extremities are provided with a raking stem suggests that the punter at that time plied not only the Fig. Reconstruction drawings of 13th-century punter Rotterdam 2 after van Holk , app. River Scheldt, c Belgium Antwerp, 13th cent.
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River Scheldt, d Belgium Meinerswijk 2, ca. Punters and vessels of unknown type, arranged in chronological order. All date to after ca. Alterna- Other 13th-century hull remains of unknown type have tively, because their late appearance according to our been found in the Netherlands in Amsterdam Nieu- current evidence, one can argue that punters are inland wezijds Kolk: Vlierman and Rotterdam Rotter- adaptations of the seagoing cog design.
A 15th-century dam 4: van Holk , , app. Both are very riverine and coastal vessel found in the River Canche, fragmentary. They belong to flat-bottomed vessels with in the Pas-de-Calais region of northern France, also a central keel plank flanked by a flush-lying garboard bears a strong relationship to the cog and may be a later strake, which in turn is flanked by overlapping bottom adaptation Rieth forthcoming.
The hull shape of the Rotterdam 4 wreck could not be reconstructed. The Amsterdam ship has rounded Somewhat similar vessels, tentatively dated to the 13th bilges and lapstrake side planking. Overlapping strakes century, have been found in the Antwerp harbor Le- are edge-fastened with treenails, and frames are likewise febvre 3 and 4: Ellmers , , nos. Plank seams are figs. Very little information is known about these caulked with moss and sintels Fig.
Diagram of joinery and caulking found on a 13th-century vessel of unknown type from Amsterdam after Vlierman , fig. It combines a flat, flush bottom and hard specific needs for a larger variety of vessel shapes chine with convex sides made up of overlapping strakes and sizes. In the 13th and 14th centuries the Hanseatic Fig. Its hull probably tapered toward the extremi- cog was the leading maritime trading ship of north- ties.
Treenails are used to fasten side-strakes and attach ern Europe, whereas the hulk experienced much less knee-shaped frames to the planking. Caulking is done growth. I have argued that the development of the hulk with moss and sintels. As the main transport vessel for AD mention a larger variety of seagoing ship traffic between the Lower and Middle Rhine, its growth types, such as the 13th-century ewer, the 14th-century appears to have been limited by the many tolls imposed busse or the 14thth century baardze Vogel , by local rulers along the Rhine at that time, which dis- In London, 14th- and 15th-century docu- couraged the growth of river trade, and spawned a rise ments mention as many as sixteen names for ship and in land transport.
After AD we see again a change: boat types, including the seagoing barge. Thus the now the hulk surpasses the cog, but it has borrowed so historical sources and the archaeological record, how- many features from the cog, that it has become effec- ever fragmentary at present, are in remarkable agree- tively a hybrid. High-quality shipbuilding wood is now ment. It appears that after AD , the number of imported en masse from the Baltic, making the prov- seagoing and inland ship and boat types proliferated enancing of ships more difficult. Schematic cross section of a boat of unknown type found at Hattem, ca.
AD after Vlierman a, app. Before terland has made it clear that nearly all these remains the Carolingian period, nearly all boat remains found belong to a single broad boatbuilding tradition that in this region are of simple and expanded logboats, stretched from northeast France to southern Jutland and implying that most waterborne transport was small- the Elbe area. This medieval technological tradition scale. Coastal and maritime transport was done with grew out of a blending of the so-called Romano-Celtic Nordic-type clinker-built vessels, which may or may tradition — the local tradition attested during the Roman not have been built locally, and presumably also with period in the Rhine area and regions further west — and the local, hypothetical, proto-cog.
Expanded logboats new elements such as the expanded logboat and pos- would have been seaworthy as well, and it is conceiv- sibly overlapping planking that appear to have come able that early versions of the Utrecht type ship already with the arrival of new Germanic tribes in the Rhine existed. It remains to be dem- onstrated whether these immigrants also established a From the Carolingian period until AD , the grow- tradition of Nordic clinker building along the southern ing economy spawned the use of larger vessels, and North Sea coast.
Bremen, that it extended up to the area of the River Weser. In the 12th century, it is attested among locally built barges After AD , both archaeological and historical as far as the Arendsee in the Elbe area and in SE Jutland sources show an evolution towards a greater diversity Hadderslev, Haithabu, and Egernsund. The fact that the of hull types, which must reflect increased specializa- same boatbuilding tradition is found in so many different tion in waterborne transport no doubt as a result of river systems and lakes over such a large area is indica- the rise of the medieval city and the booming urban tive of intense contacts between local boatbuilders.
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Tignol, Catalog no. Industrial and mill supplies. Paul, ? Description des experiences de la machine aerostatique de MM. De Montgolfier… Par M. Winzen Collection. Description des experiences de la machin aerostatique de mm. Ouvrage orne de neuf planches en taille-douce, repreesentant les diverses machines quie ont ete construites jusqua ce jour… [Aeronautcial collection. De herren Stephan und Joseph von Montgolfier versuche mit der von ihen erfunenen aerostatischen maschine. Ein auszug aus der franzosischen beschreibung des herrn Faujas de Saint-Fond. Von C. Des ballons aerostatiques, de la maniere de les construire, de les faire elever: avec quelques vues pour les rendre utiles.
On y a joint l'Histoire des ballons les plus singuliers… Lausanne, J. Premiere suite de La description des experiences aerostatiques de mm. Paris, Cuchet, Luftfahrten einst und jetzt. Berlin, Hermann Paetel, L'aviation; ses debuts-son developpement; de crete a crete, de ville a ville, de continent a continent. Project pour la direction de l'aerostat, par les oppositions utileses. Par Pierre Ferrand Paris, Imp. Boudon, How it flies; or, the conquest of the air.
Beautiful Humbug. Greenwich, Con. Munchen, Graphische Gesamtgestaltung, n. Les aerostats, par Louis Figuier, ouvrage illustre de 53 gravures sur bois. Paris, Jouvet et c, Les aerostats. Title wanting. Running title: Merveilles de la science. You helped to increase the quality of our service. The HL Pharm [ Der HL Pharm Tech [ The applications in [ Die fraglichen Anmeldungen [ The goods with aluminium or stainless steel surface must be maintained at regular [ In cases of stubborn [ Furthermore, also a number of other product groups may offer significant potential for cost efficient improvements, as there is evidence that their impact is even more significant than both the Labouze and the EIPRO study [ Since the goods were everyday consumer goods, it could be [ The fundamental suitability of the instruments for an effective cleaning and disinfection was demonstrated by an [ All the appeals rely on the same single plea in law, infringement of Article 7 1 b of the regulation on the Community trade mark, whereby the appellants challenge the various factors used by the Court of First Instance in [ Therefore, the fact that they have chosen different [ Dass sie verschiedene Formen und Farben [ However, a disadvantage of the immersion cage was the labour required in loading [ To avoid damaging your machine, we recommend that you use [ Currently our range of products includes scent dispensers for the toilet, Combiblock 2in1, scented [ The company operates in a league of top [ Everything is always available in the [ In addition to the washing powder segment [ Neben dem Waschpulversegment besteht insbesondere know-how in der Entwicklung und [ Chewing gum and other sticky combinations do not stick well to [ Kaugummi und andere klebende Verbindungen haften auf behandelten [ When required, it is possible to order a comprehensive maintenance set from [ Therefore, the claim which the Court of Justice must settle is whether the contested judgments contain a [ Regarding the dosage please follow the [ Dosierung entsprechend den Angaben auf [