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Beautiful but bored, she spends lavishly on clothes and on her home and embarks on two disappointing affairs But he does not have the patience to transform his experiences into practice.
He only hungers for more experience. In Telemachus, Ulysses sees the qualities that are needed in order to change the people from the way they are into what they should be. In governing a civilized state, a leader might not need to present such a strong moral example, but in civilizing savages, this poem tells us, a great degree of gentleness is required. This poem is written in iambic pentameter. Iambic means that the rhythm is in segments of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable.
Iambic meter is the most common metric pattern used in English poetry because it resembles the natural rise and fall of the way we ordinarily speak the language. Because the poem lacks rhyming words at the ends of lines, its form is called blank verse. A speaker who addresses an audience in blank verse gives the impression of being individualistic, an independent thinker, not bound by convention. By contrast, a speaker whose thoughts are strictly organized around rhymes may seem to have thoughts that fit more clearly into recognized social patterns.
One more technique that is prominent in this poem is the use of enjambment—the running over of a sentence or thought from one line to the next without any punctuation at the end of the line. The lines that do come to a complete stop at the end therefore draw more attention to themselves, because of their rarity.
He works his work, I mine.
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Because the Romantic Period was not an official organization but is a way we use of designating the spirit of the times, no strictly undisputable dates can be attached to it. This philosophical and artistic movement is generally recognized to have grown out of the social turmoil of the late s—which included the American Revolution of and the French Revolution of —and to have solidified during the Napoleonic Wars , which affected all of European society.
Most critics agree with placing the starting date of the Romantic Period in , when William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge published the groundbreaking Lyrical Ballads. There seems to be no reason the Romantic and Victorian periods cannot be seen to exist during the same period, depending upon what elements of a work are being examined. The Romantic Period came about when the development of democracy and the growth of cities forced artists and philosophers to focus attention on the individual and to question the suffering that they might, in an earlier time, have been able to avoid seeing or considering.
It was a time of optimism, of advancing the belief that society, whatever its problems, can be perfected. It was a time of humanism, as people came to care more about other people. It was a time when the arts came to be looked to, not only as tools of communication, but as important in and of themselves; genius and creativity were valued. Today: Official government policies that support oppression of ethnic groups are rare, but increasingly, ethnic hostilities are the causes of wars. The early part of Romanticism, called the Age of Romantic Triumph or, sometimes, the Classical Romantic Period, was an especially vibrant time in literature, as writers fought to throw off the expectations of the generation before them, to cope with the confusion of the world, and to cope with the new-found respect that was given to artists.
For example, an eighteenth-century poem or painting might depict a tale from ancient Greece that had been told before, and it might be admired for the smart handling of technique that the artist displayed. A Romantic writer, such as Sir Walter Scott , might write about the history of his own country as in Ivanhoe , or, like Tennyson, he might use a classical situation but give the hero a new level of psychological depth. In the s, Romanticism spread across the globe, and some of the great practitioners in every field of art have either been part of the Romantic movement or, like Tennyson, have been influenced by it without following all of its principles.
American authors writing at the same time who shared a similar outlook are Irving, Hawthorne, Longfellow, and Poe. The poem captures the heroic mood of the seafaring wanderer that has charmed Western civilization since the original tales of Ulysses from antiquity, but it also adds the twist of the father abandoning his responsibilities to follow the call of adventure, while leaving his son to be a sensible ruler of the land.
Eliot noted, as other critics have, that, regardless of his other gifts, Tennyson was at his weakest when trying to tell a story. Herbert F. Arnold Markley is a freelance writer who has contributed essays and reviews to Approaches to Teaching D. The poem is a dramatic monologue, a popular poetic form in the nineteenth century in which the entire poem is narrated by a single speaker. The title of this poem indicates that the speaker is Ulysses, a legendary hero of ancient Greek literature , but Tennyson has chosen to give the speaker his Roman name rather than his Greek name, Odysseus, and this detail is important to keep in mind when interpreting the poem.
After the Trojan Prince Paris abducted the legendary beauty Helen of Troy from her husband, the Greek Menelaus, the Greeks launched a ten-year war against the Trojans in an effort to win Helen back. After a long and difficult war, the Greeks finally defeated the Trojans, and the Greek warriors returned to their homes in Greece. Ulysses tells Dante about his final voyage and describes his quest to sail beyond the prescribed limits of the world at Gibraltar, the edge of the Mediterranean Sea.
It was more written with the feeling of his loss upon me than many of the poems in In Memoriam. The Victorians, particularly, saw this as a truly noble expression of a spirit tireless in the face of death and relentless in the quest for new accomplishments and discoveries.
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As it was difficult to decide how to interpret Ulysses as a character, it is difficult to determine whether or not we are intended to see his will to live and his desire for adventure as honorable qualities, or rather to see that his wish for escape and for constant stimulation indicates a resistance to accept the idea of his own death. There may be another way to interpret the theme of death in the poem. The brilliance of this poem, as readers throughout the years have continued to discover, lies in its many possibilities for interpretation and in the many differing messages a reader may take from it.
Significant critical attention has focused on the form of the poem, with critics debating whether it is a rhetorical or dramatic monologue The impossibility of knowing the setting in which Ulysses speaks mirrors our uncertainty about his character. Many critics have examined the kind of knowledge which Ulysses seeks.
Ulysses feels a sense of loss, emptiness, lack of use, and indifference to others. These melancholy emotions are countered by his intellect, which generates the stirring rhetoric to forge on. His current emotional state is the result of having dedicated his life to the pursuit of glory. Ulysses has performed a lifetime of martial duty That Ulyssess is abandoning his paternal obligations we cannot be certain, as the circumstances surrounding the transfer of administrative power are unknown.
Perhaps Ulysses is now a superfluous figure who has already been forced out and is trying to deceive himself into thinking that he has relinquished that power which he has unwillingly lost. Perhaps his homecoming to Ithaca has been his first defeat. Far from creating the cunning figure which Dante portrayed, Tennyson may here be depicting the pathetic figure who cannot understand or accept defeat by his countrymen. Tennyson may be illustrating the death-in-life of a once-revered ruler who has lost his social niche, and is consequently suffering a loss of identity, a kind of psychic injury which is more damaging than the wounds inflicted in battle.
Rather than await a prosaic death in Ithaca, he seeks a glorious death commensurate with his heroic self-image. He desires to guarantee his place in history by dying in his heroic element, the sea, which has been his theater of action. He seeks the immortality conferred by the endless retelling of his story, which will elevate him to an almost mythical status.
In his conviction that he has been a giant among little men, Ulysses has created his own laws.
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As the manipulative rhetorician his objective has been his own self-aggrandizement, which is an effort to manipulate reality to conform to his own image. Here Ulysses fashions an illusory cerebral component to his martial endeavors. This line also captures his nostalgia for his former power as the hero-in-charge who could create the laws or rules which others passively followed. Is Ulysses trying to deceive an actual group of mariners into accompanying him, or is he trying to hide from the truth of his frail, powerless, human identity?
His tragedy is that he is confronted with the emptiness of his achievement. He is aware that the goal which he has pursued in life—glory—has fallen far short of the preconceived ideas which he absorbed from his culture. This hero who hopes to achieve immortality through an incorporation into the collective memory had his origins in a cultural creation process. Ulysses strove to become the supreme fighter, because the ability to triumph in battle was prized by his culture and was how maleness was defined Ulysses did not at a given moment in his history suddenly renounce a life of spiritual harmony for glory.
His development as a warrior was impelled by those cultural forces which dictated male behavior. The young boy models himself on those vaunted figures celebrated by society. Tennyson is suggesting the danger inherent in the reductive merging of the individual with his achievement. Ulysses can only define himself as a warrior. His self-definition hinges on his achievements. Source: Lynne B. The voyage for which Ulysses is preparing is the act of dying, and his.
However, that assumption is not easily established, for the disclosure that Ulysses faces an audience comes gradually and belatedly. The first section Since we become aware of the transition from self address to public address tardily, we cannot easily determine whether the poem is entirely a dramatic monologue, or part soliloquy and part dramatic monologue, or perhaps soliloquy in the guise of dramatic monologue.
Although most past criticism has categorized the poem as dramatic monologue, some recent criticism has argued that the first thirty-two lines present a soliloquy. However, it seems likely that the whole poem is a soliloquy presented as a dramatic monologue. That is, the progress of what seems to be the literal occasion may exist only in the mind of the speaker as a metaphor for an inward voyage which he contemplates. Then the sequence of his thoughts develops out of his contemplation of the past The transitions from one position, and audience, to the next, however, are not filled in; the fact that a jump from one to another especially in 1.
We do not perceive the scene directly through the mind of the speaker so much as we view it in his mind. That the poem is not clearly a dramatic monologue coincides with the fact that it is not concerned with the immediacies of social issues. Instead of voicing a desire to escape social responsibility, the poem presents more universal intellectual issues and hence the soliloquy form seems more suited to the private contemplation of such issues. Since that private contemplation requires action to confirm belief, the speaker presents what is soliloquy in the form of dramatic address which implies action.
The dramatic stage, then, is an illusion contrived 1 to establish the vital connection between the outer world of action and the inner world of contemplation and 2 to establish the symbolic connection between the two whereby action in the seen world the embarkation on a sea voyage is symbolic of action in the unseen world. The issues in the poem become clear only with an understanding of the goal Ulysses seeks. The direction of the journey further clarifies that his goal is in death:. The sea voyage is a traditional symbol of the spiritual journey, including the act of dying For one thing, he is near death:.
In addition, the fact that he now relinquishes the rule of Ithaca to Telemachus with decided finality is appropriate to preparation for death and suggests that he intends a voyage from which he will not return:. To the mariners he says,. The mariners are not common sailors, but are souls who are prepared to go on a mental or spiritual voyage, doing more than tend to the rigging. Like death, the sea is dark and broad, mysterious and limitless. The star sinking into the sea mirrors the spirit plunging into the destructive element, an act prefigured in the past when.
The problem for the mind of the yet-living Ulysses is to determine that there is evidence for the existence of spiritual reality. His mind seems unsure about the future because it does not know whether death contains complete annihilation or offers spiritual fulfillment, the two alternatives which Ulysses considers:. Hence whereas the mind views the two possibilities for death as exclusive alternatives, the imaginative will perceives them as a single event. The immediate difficulty is that the connection between the vital past and the desired vital future is severed by the present, which is a barren existence devoid of spiritual vitality.
The forces which seem to disprove the existence of spirit are time, fate 1. His unexpressed argument seems to be that if one can prove in life that man is spirit, one has a right to hope that man remains spirit in death. This underlying assumption of the poem is implied by the fact that Ulysses hopes to see Achilles in the Happy Isles. Ulysses emphasizes his difference from, and superiority to, his subjects because their natures would seem to indicate that man is spiritless. Ulysses is trying less to inflate himself than to convince himself that he is proof of his own immortality since his experience has proved him to be supra-animal.
Ulysses persuades himself that he is more than a body. Whereas his subjects merely sleep and feed, he is awake both literally and imaginatively. Experience proves the spirit in the man, and man thereby proves the spiritual world outside himself. The implication is that men who strove with gods may be godlike. The past seems to mirror the future, but the present stands between the mirror and the reality. Past is freed from present to unite with the future. The two pairs are divided by death but are joined by the undying will, which never yields: not to opposition in the past, stasis in the present, or death in the future.
The body dies, but the will remains constant through both life and death. The man who experiences greatly will find at last the great Achilles. Eliot, George. LXIV, No. Eliot, T. Flaxman, Rhonda L. Tennyson, Hallam. London: Macmillan, , Tucker, Herbert F. The author argues convincingly that the sensibilities that formed this poem fit more closely with social attitudes prevailing twenty years later.
This book is a good start for the reader who wants to understand Tennyson as a craftsman. Ulysses follows the wanderings of Leopold Bloom, a middle-aged advertising salesman, and Stephen Dedalus, a young artist, as they cross and recross Dublin on a single summer day. John Joyce worked first in business, then as a civil servant, establishing a tenuous middle-class economic position. According to contemporaries, John Joyce was a jolly, bibulous, pugnacious good fellow, notorious in Dublin for his extravagance, biting wit, and monocle. His son James inherited some of his traits—an interest in Irish politics, a love of music, a lively sense of humor, a distrust of the clergy, and spendthrift habits.
His first book of poems, Chamber Music , was published in They had two children, Giorgio and Lucia, and Joyce continued his writings. Early versions of three of the short stories that would comprise Dubliners appeared in in The Irish Homestead , edited by the Irish poet George Russell A. Though Dubliners was largely completed by , Joyce did not find a publisher willing to print it until His autobiographical novel A Portrait of the Artist As a Young Man was received coolly by the Irish reading public, but nonetheless contributed to his success by attracting the attention of respected literary figures, including the American poet and editor Ezra Pound, who, together with the Irish poet W.
Yeats, helped Joyce secure patronage. He died in Zurich, Switzerland, on January 13, , after an operation for a duodenal ulcer. From its prehistory, Ireland has been subject to a series of invasions, incursions, and settlements by outsiders. Its legendary background includes mythic occupiers such as crude and earthy Firbolg, heroic Tuatha Da Danann, and the Milesians, free spirits and artists regarded as the ancestors of the Irish royal clans.
The third century ce. In the early fifth century, the British-born St. Patrick embarked on his mission to convert the Irish to Christianity.
Ireland was invaded in the ninth century by Norsemen and in the twelfth by the recent Norman conquerors of England. England would subsequently dominate Ireland largely through the Anglo-Irish nobility descendants of Norman invaders, in contrast to native Irish. Not until the sixteenth century, however, did the English—under King Henry VII of the Tudor dynasty —begin the political and economic domination that would eventually reduce Ireland to the status of an impoverished English colony.
Henry himself became supreme head of the Church of England and sought to reform the church power structure in Ireland as well, but some Irish chiefs resisted his usurpation of their ancient prerogatives. Judging that the Irish would continue to revolt if unmonitored, Henry set out to completely replace the Catholic, Irish-speaking chieftain class with a Protestant administration that would be controlled from London. A few years later, in , Henry declared himself king of Ireland.
Henceforth the Irish courts, churches, and landed estates would be governed directly by the English or their Anglo-Irish Protestant representatives. To enforce this new arrangement, the English Parliament passed a set of discriminatory codes that barred Catholics from all legal and government professions in Ireland, and that subjected the meetings and legislative drafts of the Irish Parliament to the control of the English king and council. The Irish did not suffer these indignities quietly. Their resistance led to a declaration of independence during the English Civil War that produced disastrous consequences.
The rights of Catholics were further curtailed. By the middle of the eighteenth century, the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland was complete, leaving followers of the Church of England—only about one-tenth of the population—in control of land and political office. Through discriminatory penal laws, not only Catholics but also Presbyterians and Nonconformists would be deprived of civil rights in Ireland for more than a hundred years.
Patriotic opposition in the Irish Parliament, spearheaded by Henry Flood and Henry Grattan , resulted in the moderate reforms of , which included limited Irish self-government. During this period some minor disabilities suffered by Catholics in Ireland were abolished, but this slight relaxation of English control only intensified the Irish desire for self-rule. At the end of the eighteenth century, when the English were distracted by the French Revolution , the Irish saw an opportunity to advance their cause.
In , hoping to unite Protestants and Catholics in the movement for an independent constitutional republic, Theobald Wolfe Tone and others formed the Society of United Irishmen. By the United Irishmen had adopted a revolutionary stance, and actively sought assistance from France against England. After unsuccessful attempts by the French to invade and wrest control of Ireland, Tone led the United Irishmen in a series of abortive uprisings.
The uprisings, staged in , were brutally suppressed by the English. A failed rebellion led by Robert Emmet in was the last protest of the United Irishmen. Their emancipation consisted of the repeal of the final anti-Catholic measures. British political domination had enormous social effects. Probably the most significant historical event for nineteenth-century Ireland was The Great Famine Prompted by a potato blight that destroyed the staple of a large portion of the Irish population, the famine led to widespread starvation and death.
British rule, both in previously confining Ireland to an agrarian economy and in failing to act to alleviate immediate conditions, aggravated the suffering enormously. In three years, the population of Ireland fell by 1.
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Some who remained rebelled once more, again without success. The British military promptly suppressed the Young Ireland uprising mounted during the Great Famine, as well as the subsequent Fenian revolt Fenianism named after Fianna, the legendary band of Irish warriors led by Finn McCool was a revolutionary movement that arose in the last third of the nineteenth century. At the heart of the movement was a secret society of Irish nationalists who espoused a radical republican ideology that rejected any connection with the British crown.
By the early s Parnell had galvanized the predominantly poor Catholic population of Ireland into a nationalist movement, and he took the British Parliament hostage by using the single voting block of the Irish Party as a means of obstruction and filibuster, thus forcing the Irish Question to the center stage of English politics.
But in , two prominent British officials, Lord Frederick Cavendish, chief secretary for Ireland, and his undersecretary, Mr. In the end, constitutional home-rule for Ireland never materialized under Gladstone, and Irish nationalist ambitions were frustrated for the next 20 years.
As the Irish Party in parliament fell into disarray with the disgrace of Parnell, the energy behind the movement for national independence began to express itself culturally rather than politically. In , Gaelic scholar Douglas Hyde founded the Gaelic League, a nationalist organization of Roman Catholics and Protestants dedicated to preserving and extending Irish language Gaelic and culture. To this end, he and other like-minded nationalist scholars established institutions such as the School for Irish Learning, which opened in and offered classes in Irish history, folklore, dance, and, of course, the Gaelic language.
Cultural-defense organizations also developed at this time, such as D. These groups urged nationalists and non-nationalists alike to stop imitating the English and assert respect for Irish culture. The most enduring assertion of Irish cultural nationalism was the Irish literary renaissance , a movement of poets, prose writers, and playwrights, who, between about and , sought inspiration in Irish mythology, folklore, and popular culture. The domination of the movement by Irish writers from middle-and upper-class Protestant backgrounds, such as W. Joyce maintained an ambivalent relation to the Irish literary renaissance and Irish nationalism in general.
On the one hand, as an avowed socialist, he supported the cause of Irish independence and welcomed the revival of Irish letters. On the other hand, he always asserted a catholic and cosmopolitan sensibility in his works, an inclusive European attitude. Joyce drew upon the voluminous research of nineteenth-century social science in constructing a mythic and heroic background for the otherwise rather unspectacular actions of Bloom and Dedalus in Ulysses. Eliot called it Eliot in Gray, p. Popular interest in anthropology had been stimulated in the late nineteenth century by studies of contemporary preliterate cultures, such as that of American Indian peoples and Australian aborigines, and by the disinterment of dead civilizations, such as that of Minoan Crete begun in by Sir Arthur Evans and Troy by Heinrich Schliemann from In addition, works such as J.
The Golden Bough surveyed spiritual beliefs and practices worldwide, with special emphasis on myths of regeneration like those that inform the reveries of Leopold Bloom in Ulysses. Such writings suggested that, however much religions might claim to differ, their sacred narratives, dogmas, and practices conformed to a few simple motifs and patterns found all over the world, and that highly developed theologies were rooted in ideas associated with primitive magic.
As important as the British advances in anthropology was the work of French sociologist Emile Durkheim, whose book The Elementary Forms of Religious Life was published while Joyce was writing Ulysses. His religious theories, which caused considerable controversy, may have appealed to Joyce for the emphasis they give to the communal function of religion.
Parallel to the advances in anthropology were those of psychology. Modern psychology, especially as it was developing at the turn of the twentieth century around the Viennese school of Sigmund Freud , was throwing new light upon the influence of unconscious mental processes in human thought and behavior. Of special importance for Ulysses were studies by a student of Freud, Otto Rank , whose work on hero myths, the incest motif in literature, and the trauma of birth all contribute to ideas at work in the novel.
The characters and events in Ulysses parallel in an ingenious and frequently subtle manner the Odyssey of Homer, the ancient Greek epic and touchstone of the Western literary canon. The correspondences, however, are often disguised. What follows is a chapter-by-chapter summary of the basic plot line of the novel, prefaced by their Homeric equivalents in brackets.
Readers should be aware, however, that Ulysses is intentionally designed to thwart simple summaries. The squat tower was one of 15 battlements built in , when a French invasion of Britain was threatened. As the chart below shows, joyce assigned a complex system of correspondences to his labyrinthine novo!. He has been living in the tower with his erstwhile friend, Buck Mulligan, a medical student.
Stephen and Mulligan are joined at breakfast by Haines, an Oxford acquaintance and guest of Mulligan, who has recently also been living in the tower. Haines is a wealthy English tourist in Ireland doing research for a book on Irish folk sayings. He condescendingly speaks to the old Irishwoman who delivers the men their morning milk, addressing her in Gaelic, a language she does not know.
At the end of the chapter, shortly before swimming in the nearby ocean, Mulligan gets Stephen to give him the key to the tower. Stephen queries his students about the ancient battle of Asculum b.
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Deasy, the aged and opinionated headmaster. Deasy lectures the polite Stephen on financial responsibility, meanwhile expressing Anglo-Irish loyalty and anti-Semitism. His mind wanders over his considerable store of abstruse learning, as well as events in his life thus far. At the end of the chapter, he urinates and leaves his dried snot on a rock. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters roughly recapitulate the times of the first, second and third chapters. The uxorious Bloom prepares breakfast for his wife, affectionately feeds the cat, goes to the butcher shop for a kidney forgetting to take his latch key , has a bowel movement, and performs a host of other trivial domestic labors.
At the end of the chapter, Bloom expresses sympathy for his dead acquaintance, Paddy Dignam, whose funeral he is about to attend. In order to get rid of Lyons, who wants to know the odds on the English Ascot horse race later that day, Bloom hands him his newspaper. He attempts to ingratiate himself to these men but his thoughts—and occasionally his speech—reflect his divergence from typical Irish sentiments.
The sentiment contradicts Catholic doctrine, which requires time to receive sacramental forgiveness for sins before death. At the end of the chapter, Bloom watches a large rat crawl into a grave site and imagines—without any faintness of heart—its meal of decaying flesh. His mind then returns from the realm of the dead; re-engaging life, he thinks of Molly. This sets Bloom—the only Irishman in the chapter engaged in productive activity—off to the newspaper office of the Evening Telegraph , where he asks the editor, Myles Crawford, if he can phone Keyes.
Bloom then goes out to meet Keyes. The chapter is stylistically notable for its newspaper-like headline; actually parodies of headlines, they introduce sections of the action, to which they sometimes seem only remotely relevant. He also muses on the unhappy condition of many Irishwomen, something he attributes to Catholic doctrine, and the tendency of the Irish to forsake their leaders, such as Parnell.
At the end of the chapter, Bloom manages to avoid a direct confrontation with Boylan by quickly ducking into the Dublin National Museum. Since Haines fails to appear, Stephen must perform for some local Dublin intellectuals: the author A. Later Mulligan joins the group. Meanwhile, Bloom lurks in the background, seeking a copy of a previous ad for Keyes.
In particular, Shakespeare identified with dispossessed and cuckolded Hamlet the father rather than Hamlet the son. Stephen presents his evidence in seemingly haphazard fashion, according to the whims of his skeptical listeners. At the end of the seemingly inconclusive performance, Bloom leaves the library, passing between Stephen and Mulligan, that is, between the whirlpool of idealism and the rock of materialism.
Stephen apparently takes little notice. The three chief characters of the novel—Molly, Bloom, and Stephen—are reduced to the level of all other Dubliners. The chapter uses stylistic techniques such as tonal contrasts, rhythmic variations, contrapuntal phrases, percussives, and Wagnerian leitmotifs. Some 58 different musical themes are laid out in the opening, which is often described as an introductory enunciation of the musical motifs, and marks the most substantial departure from conventional narrative form thus far in the novel. The lot of them are somewhat the worse for drinking.
The chapter contrasts Bloom to the citizen, his polar opposite. Bloom is humane and nonviolent, preaching the Judeo-Christian doctrine of love, while the citizen is a xenophobic Fenian committed to savage attacks upon the English and against all but the most chauvinistic Irish patriots. Bloom is biding his time, deliberately postponing his return home. Also on the beach is Gerty MacDowell, a young lower-middle-class woman. At the end of her narrative, she deliberately exposes her undergarments to the surreptitiously masturbating Bloom and walks away limping she is lame.
After finding the scrap of paper left by Stephen, whose writing he cannot decipher, Bloom futilely attempts to write a message in the sand for Gerty, which he then erases. At the end of the chapter, he falls asleep on the rocks. Topics include procreation, pregnancy, contraception, venereal disease, and birth, as well as Irish history and politics.
He reflects upon his own sexual life, his relationship to Molly and Milly, and his dead son Rudy. During the episode, Mulligan arrives, Haines makes a brief appearance, and Mrs. Purefoy gives birth to a son. In accord with the theme of birth and development, the chapter is narrated in a historical range of English literary styles especially those used by Anglo-Irish writers , from Latinate beginnings to modern Dublin slang and journalese. The chapter is presented in drama form, but is akin to a psychodrama, animated by apparitions and hallucinations.
Almost every previous element of Ulysses, including the most seemingly trivial, is here recapitulated, often in a surreal manner, and it is difficult to separate reality from illusion. At the climax of the chapter, Stephen, in terror at an alcohol-induced vision of his dead mother, smashes a lampshade and rushes from the brothel. Bloom placates Bella Cohen, pays for the lamp, and follows Stephen—by now abandoned by Lynch—to the street. There he finds Stephen confronted by two drunken English soldiers.
Though the police arrive, Bloom manages to prevent the unconscious Stephen from being arrested. As the chapter ends, Bloom, attempting to revive Stephen, has a vision of an year-old Rudy. The two exhausted Irishmen—it is now past midnight—share desultory remarks, often amusing in the deadpan style of the chapter.
Bloom is polite, discreet and solicitous; Stephen is curt and brusque. Both men are mystified by a sailor, W. Murphy, who has been entertaining those in the shelter with his stories, and who claims, without evidence, to know Simon Dedalus. Taking his arm, Bloom escorts him out. On the way to Eccles Street, they discuss their shared love of music. Upon their arrival, Bloom finds that he has forgotten to take the latch key.
He resourcefully climbs down into the area railing, lets himself in through the kitchen, and admits Stephen through the front door. Bloom then serves Stephen cocoa in the kitchen, and the two men continue their conversation. They also plan to undertake further conversations. Bloom returns the money that he has held for Stephen since the Nighttown excursion, and both men exit through the back garden. They contemplate the early morning sky and urinate together. Stephen leaves as the nearby church bells ring the 2 a.
Reentering the house, Bloom, bumping his head against the sideboard, recognizes that the front-room furniture has been rearranged. She awakes and questions him about his day. He gives her an abbreviated account and then falls asleep, his head at her feet, as is his wont.
She does, however, urinate, menstruate, and perhaps masturbate. Also she is conscious of the time—she hears the church bells strike 4 a. Her thoughts range from her rather lonely youth in Gibraltar, where she grew up without a mother or close friends her own age, to her children, Milly and the dead Rudy. Although she mentions several possible lovers and fantasizes about Stephen, her recent sexual intercourse with Blazes Boylan is perhaps her first affair since she has been married. Always her thoughts return to Bloom. Though Jewish law calls for circumcision, he has not been circumcised.
On the other hand, he has received the Catholic sacrament of baptism three times. In fact, the history of the lews generally in Ireland is a complex story of exile and assimilation. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Dublin lewish population was decimated due to pressures to emigrate, convert, or otherwise assimilate, reducing the small population of 40 families to two. As naturalization laws began to ease in the mid-nineteenth century, Jews were allowed a relative amount of religious and cultural freedom: Jewish marriages were given legal status; proscription from holding public office was eliminated; and dress codes were relaxed and finally eliminated.
By , Jews in Dublin numbered 3,, but they were still denied access to many public and private institutions, such as Trinity College, and anti-Semitism remained prevalent. When an anti-Semitic outburst took place in Limerick, Ireland, to , the nationalist Arthur Griffith defended the anti-Semitic remarks of the priest Father Creagh. Such realities account for the frequent presence of anti-Semites in Ulysses.
And the Saviour was a jew and his father was a jew. Hurling the tin at Bloom but missing, the citizen sets his dog after Bloom. This portrait exhibits the blind rage and invincible ignorance of ferocious Irish nationalism. Joyce responded to the political and cultural conflicts of his country largely through his art, asserting Irish independence by means of claims that ran counter to the dominant nationalist ideology.
What I cannot do is make another copy that is essentially file sharing. In the digital world, where Andrew Carnegie, with his love for public libraries, must loom as an enemy of capitalism, I am even enjoined from making loans. The Kindle and its competitors allow me to purchase the words of a book but not the book itself. If my wife wants to read it, she cannot take it down from the virtual family shelf but must purchase another copy. Indeed, any discussion of American copyright law must begin with the Constitution, which, not surprisingly, got the issue exactly right.
The fact that the Constitution does not delineate a number is in keeping with its genius in recognizing that, as with citizenship and suffrage, things will change. A lifetime of protection might amount to perpetuity in the lifetimes of others, and an abuse of the commons. Hyde is especially good in proving this point. He uses the correspondence of Jefferson and Madison, the publications of Paine, and, with a surfeit of illuminating detail, the writings, achievements, and attitudes of Franklin to demonstrate that the framers were thoroughly occupied with the importance of advancing the arts and sciences by guaranteeing creative persons the right to own and control the fruits of their work, while insisting that, unlike property, that work must ultimately benefit the republic and the world.
It is heartening, in these xenophobic times, to realize how utterly concerned the framers were with foreign traditions, values, and creations. Hyde notes the European minds who influenced the framers, including Newton and Dr.
Copyright, in short, served two purposes, ensuring two guarantees: that the creative person could financially benefit from the fruits of his or her labor, and that the public domain would constantly grow in service to all mankind. Think of the public domain as a geographic reality: the Public Domain, a place where the greatest works of humans of every land and time freely nourish us and the generations to come. If its gateways are closed for a hundred years and more, its expansion slows and the cultural commons stagnates.
Cultural advancement was hobbled to prevent other retailers from manufacturing Mickey Mouse ears. Financial considerations aside, the decision was particularly ruinous for Mickey. A generation of writers and painters and filmmakers who might have released him from corporate darkness, rediscovering him as the universal symbol of adventurous anarchy he once was, will be delayed until it is unlikely that, when he is free at last, anyone will care about the erstwhile king of animated mice. But in , the law was amended to include the life of the author plus fifty years.
Around that time, I participated in a discussion sponsored by ASCAP and naively began to point out ways in which this was injurious to songs, songwriters, and the public. ASCAP was no longer in the business of protecting only its artists; it was now in thrall to their heirs—grandchildren!