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November of brought a commission to write "one, two or three" quartets from Prince Nicholas Galitzin, an amateur cellist from St. By mid, Beethoven began work in earnest ultimately finishing five quartets, in order, Op. And that was all. With these final works, Beethoven created a fresh world of transcendent music that remains, in the minds and hearts of most, the unsurpassed pinnacle of Western classical chamber music.

About the Grosse Fugue alone, Stravinsky famously remarked that it was the first piece of modern music, to remain eternally modern. The String Quartet No. Sketches indicate that Beethoven planned a four-movement design, but his focus was interrupted by a severe bout of debilitating illness. Upon recovering, he wrote a new movement of "thanksgiving" that became the centerpiece of a rearranged five-movement quartet.

It was finished in July and premiered in the fall. The quartet opens with something resembling a sonata though highly original in form like most of the late quartet movements. Four long notes in the cello intone an austere and immediately memorable motif made from two pairs of cramped semitones separated by a leap. The motif recurs sporadically throughout the movement in easily discernible permutations as a fateful signpost. The permuted motif also recurs in the subsequent quartets Op. A sudden flight in the violin lands on a second, equally memorable motif that sets the music in motion with a mournful, dark preoccupation in the minor home key.

The music gradually shifts into the second key area introducing a third important subject that sings the only extended lyrical theme of the movement, a warm melody in a major key with the achingly human tonality of the lower strings using a different solo voice with each reappearance. With an astonishing fluidity of changing textures, mercurial shifts and disruptions and a rich expanse of expression from the tragic to the sublime, the allegro pursues a powerful drama of darkness engulfing light with a force and ultimate supremacy that is shattering. The second movement brings relief with the combined effects of key change to A major and the gentle sway of a triple meter at a moderate pace.

A rather "light" and, for Beethoven, tame scherzo becomes a foil for a contrasting trio of ecstatic grace, a delicate celestial music box glinting with a filigree of precious gold. As musicologist Michael Steinberg aptly comments, this is "one of the moments at which Beethoven's imagination for sonority and texture—the imagination, one is once again startled to remember, of a deaf man—is unsurpassed in freedom and freshness. Perhaps initially most bewildering, yet ultimately the most sublime, is the vast centerpiece, the slow movement that Beethoven inscribed with a monumental dedication that Steinberg translates as " A Convalescent's Holy Song of Thanksgiving to the Deity, in the Lydian Mode.

This is true as well of each individual movement of Beethoven's late quartets, and among these masterpieces, one finds a few of the most singularly individual and hallowed movements throughout the entire literature e. The lydian mode evokes the otherworldly sacred church modes of the Renaissance, and the hymn, the ancient song of praise to the deity.


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The music combines three instantly recognizable elements: a wisp of counterpoint, an austere hymn in four-part unison harmony, and a lightening strike of glittering virtuosity labeled in the score as "a feeling of new strength. As if sparked into primordial life by bolts of new strength, the tender green shoots of counterpoint grow into a rich lyrical vine embracing the cold stone of hymnody, ultimately blossoming into the most precious song you may ever hear.

Perhaps the shortest movement Beethoven ever wrote bridges this "song of thanksgiving" to the finale. As if from necessity to make us earth-bound again, a bold, proud march heralds the arrival of worldly poise, but once scarcely begun, it frays into a cloud of suspense rent by a passionately urgent recitative from the first violin: something else is coming. Without pause— attaca —the surging finale is upon us, a forceful allegro appassionato reasserting the dark cast of the quartet with the turbulent swirl of the sea. The cello commands an important role throughout. Threading the episodes comprising this loose rondo form, Beethoven weaves some of his most bold transitions and challenging digressions, a nearly frantic struggle against the tide.

As was many times his wont, in the coda, the headlong rush swiftly sheds its gravity to effervesce around the surprising arrival of a major key, a wink, a smile, a sprightly triumph in bold strokes of joy. All rights reserved. Radice Chamber Music. Berger Chamber Music. They will celebrate their anniversary in the Netherlands during the String Quartet Biennale, with the opening concert as high point: a striking programme featuring three substantial works.

Movements characterised by struggle make way in the middle of the work for music of pure beauty that elevates the listener into divine realms — a breathtaking quarter of an hour one wishes would never come to an end. The heavenly music is followed by an extremely abrupt change of mood. This capriciousness, along with a deep sense of unrequited longing for something that has departed forever, ensures that one never tires of hearing these works. The string quartet can in fact be summed up in five extraordinary works: the late Beethoven quartets.

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The music is permeated by personal struggle and constantly shifts between unfathomable complexity and ethereal beauty. On six separate evenings one of these quartets will be performed at pm. Gioachino Rossini Sonata a quattro no. The string quartet now has an established form; however, composers have certainly experimented with other instrumental combinations. Both Rossini and Hoffmeister included the double bass in their quartets.

Rossini opted for two violins, cello and double bass; Hoffmeister for violin, viola, cello and double bass. Certainly, he exploited the added weight of the double bass in an ingenious and elegant way. Hoffmeister gives the double bass a completely different role in his solo quartets. Rather than just accompanying, here the bass plays a fully fledged melodic line with virtuosic passages.

The program of this event will be published later in the season.

Upcoming Concerts

Each ensemble will perform a work from their core repertoire and a Dutch work. This Sunday afternoon is devoted to young talent, featuring four young quartets all at different stages of their careers. Two of them have just won an international competition, while two are still studying at Dutch conservatories. This is a showcase event with a personal flavour: who are these young quartets and why do they play quartet? Alasdair Tait, former cellist of the Belcea Quartet, sits on many jury panels and is also director of YCAT — an organisation devoted to the development of young classical talent.

He has in-depth insight into the challenges facing young string quartets and reveals their world to you in the course of this afternoon.

Beethoven: String Quartet No. 15 in A minor, Op. 132

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky String Quartet no. Each day in Selected By a quartet will present two major works of its own choice in a one-hour performance without interval. The juxtaposition of the two pieces creates a strong contrast or tension, while in some cases their musical impact is reinforced by their relationship to each other. Selected By kicks off with two highly charged string quartets.

Ga goed voorbereid de zaal in en verdiep je voorafgaand aan het avondconcert in wat je zult gaan horen: zes verschillende experts nemen je mee in het programma van het concert van die avond. Aansluitend op de inleiding spelen kwartetten van het Conservatorium van Amsterdam en de Nederlandse Strijkkwartet Academie een voorprogramma in de entreehal. Almost every night, a young upcoming string quartet of the Conservatory of Amsterdam or the Dutch String Quartet Academy plays an exciting fifteen-minute pre-programme on the stage in the entrance hall.

A perfect warm up for your ears, before going into the evening concert. Joseph Haydn String Quartet no. In its four-part simplicity the string quartet can be an intimate chamber ensemble but it is also capable of producing full orchestral power. Brahms demonstrates that by adding an extra viola it is even possible to far surpass an orchestra in terms of power. His second string quintet was intended to be his final work. It reveals him at the height of his powers: every bar is convincing, every last structural detail is perfect; this ravishing music explodes with incandescent energy.

Gregor Sigl from the Artemis Quartett teams up with his colleagues. With its heavenly cavatina — the penultimate movement — and the Grosse Fuge as its shocking conclusion, it is a quartet of extremes. In particular these two movements have always retained their timeless relevance. These works transcend all boundaries and have retained their contemporary relevance for the past two centuries.

Ludwig van Beethoven String Quartet no. He plays with the balance between classicist expectations and the compulsion to steer his own course. The result is a deceptively light-sounding quartet that is full of virtuosity and profound depth. Take a cup of coffee and sit down together with Lex Bohlmeijer and his guests. The focus is on the string quartet — up close and personal.

Personal anecdotes and insights into the string quartet open up a unique view of the complex world concealed behind the stage. He also works in theatre as a dramaturgist and writer. He is active as a host of concerts, conferences and debates. Every Saturday, he publishes an interview with an inspiring special guest in De Correspondent online daily. Members of the Jerusalem Quartet. Almost every morning during the String Quartet Biennale, various events will shed light on diverse aspects of the quartet.

In this masterclass, members of the Jerusalem Quartet will guide the young quartets through this captivating work of Beethoven. The Coffee Talk, which focuses on personal views on the quartet, will be followed by a masterclass, lecture or talk involving a more in-depth approach. Adam Quartet Conservatorium van Amsterdam. The string quartet has been in existence for two and a half centuries so far.

All these years the genre has been in contact with other cultures, languages, art forms and styles. Extending String Quartets lies somewhere between a concert, lecture-recital and crossover; it creates and rediscovers these connections. From American West Coast composers to encounters between East and West; from pop music to video art — all the boundaries are explored, expanded and blurred in the process.

Language and music are indivisibly linked — perhaps even to the extent of being a unified whole. Within this context, the Adam Quartet Conservatorium van Amsterdam will perform movements and fragments of all the Czech music heard throughout this festival. Here we encounter two Czechs from two eras and two different environments.

Dmitri Shostakovich String Quartet no. However, in the second movement he creates a feeling of repose with his Shakespearean monologues for the first violin, accompanied by reverential chords. The two composers interpret the same tonality — A major — in a totally different fashion: one in a weighty and serious way, the other graceful and joyful. On six separate evenings one of these quartets will be performed at The music takes occasional unprecedented twists and turns in typical Beethovian fashion.

Ultimately, though, it never really reaches the light. Something keeps Beethoven anchored to the ground. It is the only quartet of the opus 18 series to be written in a minor key, but even more striking is its totally extrovert, almost theatrical nature. Haydn and Mozart, and even Beethoven himself in earlier works, claimed this tonality to express their Sturm und Drang feelings. With its four quick movements and restless themes, this quartet fits perfectly into this tradition.

The string quartet has been in existence for two-and-a-half centuries so far. Extending String Quartets falls somewhere between a concert, lecture-recital and crossover; it creates and rediscovers these connections.

At the end of his life he poured all these passionate emotions into a string quartet. The passion that had remained stifled in real life was all the more incendiary in its musical form. Each song is a fictitious letter written by an unknown writer. In this way a new story unfolds in each song; a new love. Verdi is above all renowned for his operas, but not everyone is familiar with his small chamber music oeuvre; a single string quartet.

The contrast with Vasks could scarcely be greater. His fourth string quartet is a personal monument, dedicated to his mother on the occasion of her 90th birthday. Be prepared for what you are about to hear; drop by the pre-concert talk before going to the evening concert. Six experts explain the story behind the concert you are about to hear. After the pre-concert talk, a young quartet of the Conservatory of Amsterdam will play a pre-programme in the entrance hall.

Brett Dean is a truly versatile musician. Formerly a violist with the Berliner Philharmoniker, these days he is highly active as a chamber musician, conductor, soloist and composer. The Doric String Quartet has a long history of collaboration with Dean. The String Quartet Biennale pays tribute to him with the Early Beethovens in the morning, the Late Beethovens in the evening and, to top it all off, his string quintet op.

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The pre-concert introduction will be given in Dutch by Carel den Hartog at 7. It is short, characterised by a warm tonality and reasonably classical in its form — all in all it would seem to be an easily accessible work. Es muss sein! The first notes of this quartet evoke images of Viennese courts and palaces; gracious bows and nods in golden ballrooms; the young Beethoven eager to claim his place in the tradition of his predecessors.

It is an elegant and invigorating quartet, cast in a traditional form.

String Quartet No. 15 in A Minor, Op. - Violin 1 scored for String Quartet

Extending String Quartet falls somewhere between a concert, lecture-recital and crossover; it creates and rediscovers these connections. The string quartet enjoys great prominence in Turkey, on the border between East and West — one could say it has attained cult status. The Borusan Quartet is the embodiment of this success. Huge concert halls are regularly sold out for their performances, which draw young and old alike.

What lies behind the great popularity of the string quartet in Turkey? However, it was only in the s that the first Western style conservatories were established in Turkey. The composers who studied there on the border of East and West united the two traditions. The results varied from western instrumental combinations in the Turkish traditional style, to Turkish music in a completely westernised style.

The string quartet is alive and well in Turkey — now the Borusan Quartet and the presenter, writer and musicologist Serhan Bali bring the Turkish string quartet to life in the Netherlands. This Belgian programme features two rarely performed works, one conceived on a grand scale and the other of more modest dimensions. The title chosen by the year-old Lekeu speaks volumes. Lekeu studied with Franck, a late-blooming composer who wrote only one string quartet, inspired by the late Beethoven quartets. It is a majestic Romantic work more than three quarters of an hour in duration.

Written just seven months before his death, it marked his first great success as a composer. Almost every night, a young upcoming string quartet of the Conservatory of Amsterdam plays an exciting fifteen-minute pre-programme on the stage in the entrance hall. Tags: Young talent.